This list tracks known Florida death-sentenced prisoners eligible for relief under Hurst v. Florida (2016) because 1) their jury recommendations for death were not unanimous, and 2) their convictions became final after Ring v. Arizona (2002), which established that juries must find each aggravating factor necessary to impose death. The initial list was generated by Michael Radelet, Professor of Sociology at the University of Colorado-Boulder, and reported the status of the cases as of December 31, 2016. With the assistance of Hannah Gorman, research scholar and death penalty law clinical instructor at the Florida Center for Capital Representation at Florida International University’s College of Law, as well as attorney and researcher Melanie Kalmanson of Tracking Florida’s Death Penalty, DPIC has updated the list through March 31, 2024.

DPIC has determined at least 157 prisoners on Florida’s death row meet these twin criteria, of whom at least 144 (or 92%) have already obtained Hurst relief — which means that they are entitled to resentencing — and two have been exonerated. After Florida’s new law went into effect on April 20, 2023, ending the practice of unanimous death sentences and authorizing death by a jury vote of 8-4, judges began applying the law inconsistently to Hurst resentencing proceedings. This list now includes information on whether the 8-4 law has been applied to any resentencing occurring after the effective date of the legislation, and whether the state waived death in those cases. We include the date of sentencing where available. 

Resentenced to Life81
Resentenced to Death17
Died on Death Row6

Please let us know if you are aware of additional Florida cases that should be included on the list below, or if the status of those on the list should be updated to reflect a new sentencing disposition (i.e., resentenced to life or resentenced to death).

Prisoner NameCounty of ConvictionDeath Sentence Overturned?Resentencing Status
Abdool, DaneOrangeYResentenced to death (6/23/23) [8-4 law not applied]
Aguirre-Jarquin, ClementeSeminoleY*EXONERATED
Altersberger, Joshua LeeHighlandsY 
Anderson, Charles L.BrowardYResentenced to life (9/23) [state waived death]
Andres, RafaelMiami-DadeY 
Armstrong, Lancelot UrileyBrowardYResentenced to life
Ault, Howard StevenBrowardY[8-4 law applied; 9-3 jury recommendation of death; awaiting official resentencing]
Bailey, RobertBayY 
Baker, CorneliusFlaglerYResentenced to life (3/18/22)
Banks, DonaldDuvalY 
Bargo, MichaelMarionYResentenced to death (9/12/19)
Barnhill, ArthurSeminoleYResentenced to life
Belcher, JamesDuvalYResentenced to life (9/21/22)
Bevel, ThomasDuvalYResentenced to death (12/14/21)
Braddy, HarrelMiami-DadeY 
Bradley, Brandon LeeBrevardYResentenced to life (7/23/21)
Bright, RaymondDuvalY**Resentenced to death (12/8/17)
Brookins, ElijahGadsdenYResentenced to life (1/30/24)
Brooks, LamarOkaloosaYResentenced to life (8/29/19)
Brown, ThomasDuvalYResentenced to life
Butler, Harry LeePinellasYResentenced to life
Buzia, JohnSeminoleYResentenced to life
Calhoun, Johnny Mack SketoHolmesY 
Calloway, Tavares DavidMiami-DadeYResentenced to life (4/4/24) [8-4 law applied; jury vote unavailable]
Campbell, John WilliamCitrusYResentenced to life (6/23/21)
Cannon, MarvinGadsden  
Caraballo, VictorMiami-DadeY***Resentenced to life
Card, JamesBayYDied on death row (4/10/21)
Carr, EmiliaMarionYResentenced to life
Carter, PinkneyDuvalY 
Caylor, MatthewBayYResentenced to death (2/9/23)
Cole, TiffanyDuvalYResentenced to life (8/23/23) [8-4 law applied; jury vote 2-10]
Conde, Rory E.Miami-DadeY 
Cox, Allen WardLakeYResentenced to death (10/24/22)
Darling, Dolan a/k/a Sean SmithOrangeY 
Davis, Adam W.HillsboroughYResentenced to life (5/24/21)
Davis, Barry T.WaltonYResentenced to life (1/16/20)
Davis, William Roger IIISeminoleNFlorida Supreme Court ruled that he waived Hurst rights
Dennis, LabrantMiami-DadeY 
Deparvine, William JamesHillsboroughYResentenced to life (4/4/22)
Deviney, RandallDuvalYResentenced to death (12/11/17)
Diaz, JoelLeeYResentenced to life
Doorbal, NoelMiami-DadeY 
Doty, WayneBradfordYResentenced to death (5/15/18)
Douglas, LutherDuvalYResentenced to life (1/19/24)
Dubose, RasheemDuvalYResentenced to life (6/29/21)
Durousseau, PaulDuvalYResentenced to life (12/10/21)
Eaglin, Dwight T.CharlotteY 
Ellerbee, Terry MarvinOkeechobeeYResentenced to life
England, RichardVolusiaYResentenced to life
Evans, Paul H.Indian RiverYResentenced to life (5/3/22)
Evans, Wydell JodyBrevardYResentenced to life; subsequently
died in custody
Fletcher, Timothy W.PutnamYResentenced to death (1/3/23)
Floyd, Maurice LamarPutnamYResentenced to life
Frances, DavidOrangeYResentenced to life (6/27/22)
Francis, CarltonPalm Beach  
Franklin, Richard P.ColumbiaYResentenced to life (3/18/22)
Glover, DennisDuvalYResentenced to life (10/21/22)
Gonzalez, LeonardEscambiaY[8-4 law applied]
Gosciminski, AndrewSt. Lucie Died on death row (11/13/20)
Gregory, WilliamVolusiaYResentenced to life
Guzman, JamesVolusiaY 
Guzman, VictorMiami-DadeYResentenced to life
Hall, DonteLakeY 
Hampton, JohnPinellasYResentenced to life
Hayward, StevenSt. LucieYResentenced to life
Herard, JamesBroward  
Hernandez, MichaelSanta RosaYResentenced to life
Hernandez-Alberto, PedroHillsboroughYResentenced to life
Hertz, GuerryWakullaY[8-4 law applied; legal challenge pending]
Heyne, JustinBrevardYResentenced to life
Hobart, RobertSanta RosaYResentenced to life
Hodges, Willie JamesEscambiaYResentenced to life
Hojan, GerhardBrowardYResentenced to death (12/18/18)
Hoskins, JohnnyBrevardY 
Huggins, JohnOrangeY 
Hunter, JeroneVolusiaY[8-4 law applied]
Hurst, TimothyEscambiaYResentenced to life
Israel, ConniePutnamYResentenced to life
Jackson, Kenneth R.HillsboroughYResentenced to life
Jackson, KimDuvalY 
Jackson, Michael JamesDuvalYResentenced to death (8/11/23) [8-4 law applied; jury vote 8-4]
Jackson, RayVolusiaYResentenced to life
Jeffries, KevinBayYResentenced to life
Johnson, Paul BeasleyPolkYDied on death row (9/30/23)
Johnson, Richard AllenSt. LucieYResentenced to life (4/18/22)
Johnston, RayHillsboroughYResentenced to life (9/24/21) [remains on death row for separate crime]
Jordan, JosephVolusiaY 
King, CecilDuvalY 
Kirkman, Vahtiece AlfonsoBrevardY 
Kocaker, GenghisPinellasYResentenced to life
Kopsho, William M.MarionYResentenced to life (8/28/21)
Lawrence, JonathanSanta RosaYResentenced to death (9/11/18)
Lebron, JermaineOsceolaYResentenced to life
Lebron, JoelMiami-DadeY 
Looney, JasonWakullaY[8-4 law applied]
Lugo, DanielMiami-Dade  
Martin, David JamesClayY 
Martin, ArthurDuvalYResentenced to life (1/30/24)
Matthews, Douglas BlaineVolusiaYResentenced to life
McCoy, Richard (aka Jamil Rashid)DuvalYResentenced to life 
McCoy, ThomasWaltonYResentenced to life (12/16/21)
McGirth, Renaldo DevonMarionY[8-4 law applied]
McKenzie, NormanSt. JohnsYResentenced to death (2/14/20)
McLean, DerrickOrangeYResentenced to life
McMillian, JustinDuvalYResentenced to life
Merck, Jr., TroyPinellasY 
Miller, Lionel MichaelOrangeYResentenced to life
Morris, DontaeHillsboroughYResentenced to life [remains on death row for separate crime]
Mosley, John F.DuvalYResentenced to death (12/9/19) [sentence vacated on other grounds, resentenced to death (7/7/23) (8-4 law not applied)]
Murray, GeraldDuvalY 
Nelson, MicahPolkY 
Newberry, RodneyDuvalYResentenced to death
Okafor, BessmanOrangeY[8-4 law applied; 9-3 jury recommendation of death; awaiting official resentencing]
Orme, RoderickBayYResentenced to death (3/3/22)
Pagan, AlexBrowardYResentenced to life (5/30/23) [state waived death]
Parker, J.B.MartinYResentenced to life (3/31/23)
Partin, Phillup AlanPascoY 
Pasha, KhalidHillsboroughYResentenced to life
Patrick, EricBrowardYDied on death row (12/19/23)
Peterson, RobertDuvalYResentenced to life (1/20/23)
Peterson, CharlesPinellasYResentenced to life
Pham, TaiSeminoleYResentenced to life
Phillips, GalanteDuvalYResentenced to life (9/23) [state waived death]
Poole, MarkPolk Florida Supreme Court reversed grant of relief
Rigterink, Thomas WilliamPolkY 
Rimmer, RobertBrowardYResentenced to life (7/19/23) [state waived death]
Robards, RichardPinellasYResentenced to life
Rodgers, TheodoreOrangeYResentenced to life
Schoenwetter, RandyBrevardYResentenced to life
Seibert, MichaelMiami-DadeY 
Serrano, NelsonPolkY 
Sexton, JohnPascoYResentenced to death
Sheppard, BillyDuval Resentenced to life
Silvia, WilliamSeminole Florida Supreme Court reversed grant of relief
Simmons, Eric LeeLakeYResentenced to life
Simpson, JasonDuval***Pled guilty to lesser charges, resentenced to time served (5/31/22)
Smith, JosephSarasotaYDied on death row (7/26/21)
Smith, StephenCharlotteYDied on death row (9/29/21)
Smith, TerryDuval Resentenced to life
Smith, CoreyMiami-DadeY[8-4 law applied; legal challenge pending]
Snelgrove, David B.FlaglerYResentenced to life
Taylor, John CalvinClayYResentenced to life (4/4/23)
Tisdale, ErieseSt. LucieY 
Troy, JohnSarasotaYResentenced to life
Turner, James DanielSt. JohnsYResentenced to life
Victorino, TroyVolusiaY[8-4 law applied]
Wade, Alan L.DuvalYResentenced to life (6/16/22)
Wheeler, JasonLakeYResentenced to life (8/17/22)
White, DwayneSeminoleYResentenced to life
White, William MelvinOrangeYResentenced to life
Wilcox, DariousBroward  
Williams, Donald OtisLakeY 
Williams, RonnieBrowardYResentenced to life (1/18/24)
Woodel, ThomasPolkY 
Wright, RalphPinellasY****EXONERATED
Zommer, ToddOsceolaY 

* Aguirre’s conviction was vacated based on newly discovered evidence, not based on issues related to Hurst.

** Bright’s death sentence was overturned prior to the Hurst decision for ineffectiveness of penalty-phase counsel.

*** Death sentence overturned on issues unrelated to the Hurst decision.

**** The Florida Supreme Court found the evidence insufficient to convict Wright. Because it acquitted him of murder, the court did not need to address the Hurst violation in his case.


For more background on the Florida legislative and court actions related to the jury unanimity issue, see Hurst v. Florida Background.

To track developments in Florida death-row appeals that have been decided in light of the state and federal Hurst decisions, see this chart