Women and the Death Penalty

Facts and Figures


State Breakdown of Death Sentences for Females

Current Female Death Row Inmates

Characteristics of the Women on Death Row

List of Females Executed from 1900-Present

Articles and Resources

News and Developments - Current Year

News and Developments - Previous Years

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In general, both the death sentencing rate and the death row population remain very small for women in comparison to that for men. Actual execution of female offenders is quite rare, with only 575 documented instances as of 12/31/2016, beginning with the first in 1632. These executions constitute about 3.6% of the total of 15,931 confirmed executions in the United States (including the colonies) since 1608.

Sixteen death-sentenced women have been executed since 1976. They are:

# Date of Execution Name Race State Execution Method Race of Victim(s) Realtionship of Victim(s)
1. 11/2/1984 VELMA BARFIELD W NC Lethal Injection 1/W boyfriend
2. 2/3/1998 KARLA FAYE TUCKER W TX Lethal Injection 1/W stranger
3. 3/30/1998 JUDY BUENOANO W FL Electrocution 1/W husband
4. 2/24/2000 BETTY LOU BEETS W TX Lethal Injection 1/W husband
5. 5/2/2000 CHRISTINA RIGGS W AR Lethal Injection 2/W children
6. 1/11/2001 WANDA JEAN ALLEN B OK Lethal Injection 1/B significant other
7. 5/1/2001 MARILYN PLANTZ W OK Lethal Injection 1/W husband
8. 12/2/2001 LOIS NADEAN SMITH W OK Lethal Injection 1/W son's ex-girlfriend
9. 5/10/2002 LYNDA LYON BLOCK W AL Electrocution 1/W stranger (police officer)
10. 10/9/2002 AILEEN WUORNOS W FL Lethal Injection 1/W stranger
11. 9/14/2005 FRANCES NEWTON B TX Lethal Injection 3/B children and husband
12. 9/23/2010 TERESA LEWIS W VA Lethal Injection 2/W husband and stepson
13. 6/26/2013 KIMBERLY MCCARTHY B TX Lethal Injection 1/W neighbor
14. 2/5/2014 SUZANNE BASSO W TX Lethal Injection 1/W boyfriend
15. 9/17/2014 LISA COLEMAN B TX Lethal Injection 1/B girlfriend's son
16. 9/30/2015 KELLY GISSENDANER W GA Lethal Injection 1/W husband

Velma Barfield in North Carolina on November 2, 1984 - She was in a relationship with Stuart Taylor who was a widower. She forged checks on Taylor's account to pay for her addiction. Fearing that she had been found out, she mixed an arsenic based rat poison into his beer and tea. Taylor became very ill. As his condition worsened, she took him to the hospital where he died a few days later. There was an autopsy which found that the cause of Taylor's death was arsenic poisoning and Velma was arrested and charged with his murder. At the trial, her defense pleaded insanity but this was not accepted and she was convicted. The jury recommended the death sentence. Velma appeared cold and uncaring on the stand and gave the District Attorney a round of applause when he made his closing speech. See "Velma Barfield" by Denise Noe, Court TV.

Karla Faye Tucker in Texas on February 3, 1998 - When she was 13, she began traveling with the Allman Brothers Band. In her early 20's she started to hang out with bikers and on June 13, 1983 she entered the home of another biker with Danny Garrett and James Leibrant to steal a motorcycle. During the robbery, two persons were killed, and Garrett and Tucker were convicted of committing murder with a pickaxe. This case entered the U.S. and international news because she had become a born-again Christian while in prison and George W. Bush, then governor of Texas, had to decide on her request for clemency, which he ultimately denied. Read "Karla Faye Tucker: Texas' Controversial Murderess" by Joseph Geringer, Court TV.

Judy Buenoano in Florida on March 30, 1998 - Buenoano executed for the 1971 murder of her husband James Goodyear. As well, she was convicted of multiple counts of grand theft (for insurance fraud), and is thought to have committed multiple acts of arson (again, for purposes of insurance fraud). Read "Florida's Black Widow Executed" by CNN (March 30, 1998).

Betty Lou Beets in Texas on February 24, 2000 - She was convicted of shooting her fifth husband Jimmy Don Beets. Beets reported that her husband was missing on August 6, 1983 from their home in Henderson County, Texas. Her son, Robert Branson, would later testify that Beets had said that she intended to kill her husband and told her son to leave the house. On returning two hours later to the house, he found Jimmy Don Beets dead with two gunshot wounds. He helped his mother conceal the body in the front yard of the house, after which Beets telephoned the police. At the time of the execution, she was 62 years old, and had five children, nine grandchildren and six great-grandchildren. See "Texas Executes Betty Lous Beets for Husband's Murder" by CNN (February 24, 2000).

Christina Riggs in Arkansas on May 2, 2000 - Riggs, a licensed nurse, was convicted of murder by smothering her two preschool-aged children in their beds at the family's Sherwood home. She wrote suicide notes saying "I hope one day you will forgive me for taking my life and the life of my children. But I can’t live like this any more, and I couldn’t bear to leave my children behind to be a burden on you or to be separated and raised apart from their fathers and live knowing their mother killed herself." Then took 28 Elavil tablets, normally a lethal dose, and injected herself with enough undiluted potassium chloride to kill five people. The next day, police officers entered her apartment and found Riggs and rushed her to the hospital. During the death penalty phase, Riggs would not allow attorneys to put on a defense, saying she wanted a death sentence. The jury obliged, and she was sentenced to death by lethal injection. Riggs said "thank you" and squeezed her attorney's hand. Read "Woman Executed in Arkansas" by BBC News (May 3, 2000).

Wanda Jean Allen in Oklahoma on January 11, 2001- She was sentenced to death in 1989 for killing her lover, Gloria Leathers, in Oklahoma City in 1988. The two women, who had met in prison, had a turbulent relationship. Leathers' death followed a protracted argument between the couple which began at a local shop, continued at their home, and culminated outside a police station. Allen maintained she had acted in self-defence, claiming that Leathers had struck her in the face with a hand rake during the confrontation at the house, and that outside the police station Leathers had again come at her with the rake. Allen shot Leathers. The wound to Allen's face from the rake was still visible when she was photographed in jail. Later in 1995, A psychologist conducted a comprehensive evaluation of Wanda Jean Allen found ''clear and convincing evidence of cognitive and sensori-motor deficits and brain dysfunction'' possibly linked to an adolescent head injury. See Amnesty International's Legal Concern on Wanda Jean Allen.

Marilyn Plantz in Oklahoma on May 1, 2001 - Plantz hired her teenage boyfriend Clifford Bryson and his friend William McKimble to kill her husband for about $300,000 in life insurance. Entering his home after work, he was ambushed by Bryson and McKimble and beaten with bats while Plantz and kids were asleep in bed. Plantz got up and instructed them to "burn him" to make it look like an accident. They drove him to deserted location, doused him and his pickup with gasoline and set it on fire. McKimble pled to Life and testified. Plantz and Bryson were tried jointly. Bryson was executed in 2000. Read "Oklahoma Woman Faces Execution" by BBC News (May 1, 2001).

Lois Nadean Smith in Oklahoma on December 2, 2001- Smith was convicted of killing her son's 21- year old ex-girlfriend, Cindy Baillie in July 1982. Baillie was shot nine times and stabbed in the throat. Authorities said Smith and her son, Greg, picked up Baillie the morning of the killing. Smith then confronted her about rumors that she had threatened to have her son killed. Lois Smith's attorneys said she was trying to protect her son and was under the influence of alcohol and drugs at the time. See Lois Nadean Smith from the Clark County, IN prosecutor.

Lynda Lyon Block in Alabama on May 10, 2002 - Lyon shot Alabama police Sergeant Roger Motley, Jr. outside of a Wal-Mart during a gunfight between him and her common-law husband, George Sibley, Jr. By Sibley's own account, he was trying to explain to Motley why he didn't need a driver's license when Motley put his hand on his service revolver. Sibley then drew his gun out of the car. Motley took cover behind his patrol car; witnesses stated Sibley fired first. Lyon was at a pay phone when she heard gunfire. Witnesses stated that she was in a crouched position when she fired; she said she fired just as she stopped running toward Motley. She kept firing as he got into his patrol car because, she recalled later, she feared he was getting a shotgun. They maintained they acted in self-defense. Read Amnesty International's Urgent Action on Lynda Lyon Block.

Aileen Wuornos in Florida on October 9, 2002 - Wuornos was a prostitute and convicted serial killer who was sentenced to death by the state of Florida in 1992. She ultimately received five additional death sentences. Wuornos admitted to killing seven men, in separate incidents, all of whom she claimed raped her (or attempted to) while she was working as a prostitute. The 2003 movie Monster, starring Charlize Theron and Christina Ricci, tells Wuornos' story from the moment she met Selby Wall (based on Wuornos' lover and four-year companion, Tyria Moore) until her first conviction for murder. See "Aileen Wuornos: Killer Who Preyed on Truck Drivers" by Marlee MacLeod, Court TV.

Frances Newton in Texas on September 14, 2005 - She was executed for the for the April 7, 1987 murder of her husband, Adrian, 23, her son, Alton, 7, and daughter, Farrah, 21 months. The prosecution suggested that the motive for the killings was to collect the US $100,000 life insurance policy. Newton said that a drug dealer killed the three. The Houston police claims that her husband, Adrian Newton, was a drug dealer and was in debt to his supplier. Newton maintained her innocence from her first interrogation in 1987 until her execution in 2005. Read Amnesty International's Legal Concern on Frances Newton.

Teresa Lewis in Virginia on September 23, 2010 - She was executed for the October 30, 2002 murder of her husband and stepson in an attempt to claim life insurance money. The murder was carried out by two hired gunmen, Matthew Shallenberger and Rodney Fuller, who were both sentenced to life in prison. Lewis was regarded as the mastermind of the murders at the time of her trial, though later analysis would suggest that with her low IQ and dependency disorder that she was manipulated by the gunmen.  Read The Washington Post's story on Teresa Lewis.

Kimberly McCarthy in Texas on June 26, 2013 - She was executed for the 1997 murder of a 71-year-old retired college professor, who was her neighbor. Attorneys for McCarthy filed motions to stay her execution on the grounds that jury selection was tainted by racial bias and McCarthy's original attorney did not provide adequate representation. McCarthy was the 500th person executed in Texas since the reinstatement of the death penalty. Read The Guardian's story on Kimberly McCarthy.

Suzanne Basso in Texas on February 5, 2014 - Basso was convicted of murdering a mentally disabled man who was her boyfriend, ostensibly for insurance money. Others convicted in the offense did not receive the death penalty.

Lisa Coleman in Texas on September 17, 2014 - Coleman was executed for the starvation death of her partner's 9-year-old son. The victim's mother and Coleman's co-defendant, Marcella Williams, pleaded guilty in exchange for a life sentence.

Kelly Gissendaner in Georgia on September 30, 2015 - Gissendaner was executed for arranging to have her boyfriend kill her husband. The boyfriend received a life sentence in exchange for testifying against her. Gissendaner's children pleaded for clemency, saying they had forgiven her and didn't want to lose another parent. Several former prison inmates said that Gissendaner had given them hope and helped them turn their lives around. Pleas for clemency also came from Pope Francis, a former Georgia Supreme Court Chief Justice, and a former Deputy Director of the state Corrections Department.

Prior to the modern era of the U.S. death penalty beginning in 1976, the last female offender executed was Elizabeth Ann Duncan by California on August 8, 1962.

Death sentences and executions for female offenders are also rare in comparison to such events for male offenders. Women are more likely to drop out of the death-penalty system the further it progresses:

* women account for about 1 in 10 (10%) murder arrests;
* women account for only 1 in 50 (2.1%) death sentences imposed at the trial level;
* women account for only 1 in 67 (1.8%) persons presently on death row; and
* women account for only 1 in 100 (.9%) persons actually executed in the modern era.


Since 1973, 184 death sentences have been imposed upon female offenders. These sentences constitute about 2% of all death sentences.

Year Total Death Sentences* Female Death Sentences Portion of Total
1973 42 1 2.4%
1974 149 1 0.7%
1975 298 8 2.3%
1976 233 3 1.3%
1977 137 1 0.7%
1978 185 4 2.1%
1979 151 4 2.6%
1980 173 2 1.1%
1981 224 3 1.3%
1982 265 5 1.8%
1983 252 4 1.6%
1984 285 8 2.8%
1985 266 5 1.8%
1986 300 3 1.0%
1987 289 5 1.7%
1988 290 5 1.7%
1989 259 11 4.2%
1990 252 7 2.7%
1991 267 6 2.2%
1992 287 10 3.5%
1993 289 6 2.0%
1994 315 5 1.6%
1995 318 7 2.2%
1996 320 2 0.6%
1997 276 2 0.7%
1998 300 7 2.3%
1999 279 5 1.8%
2000 231 7 3.1%
2001 163 2 1.3%
2002 159 5 3.2%
2003 144 2 1.4%
2004 125 5 4.0%
2005 128 5 3.9%
2006 115 4 3.5%
2007 115 1 1.8%
2008 111 3 2.7%
2009 106 2 1.9%
2010 112 2 1.8%
2011 76 5 6.6%
2012 78 3 3.8%
2013 80 0 0%
2014 73 0 0%
2015 49 3 6.1%
2016 30 0 0%
2017 39 3 7.7%
Totals: 8,646 184 2.1%

As of 12/31/2017. Data through 12/31/12 taken from "Death Penalty For Female Offenders, January 1973 through December 31, 2012" by Victor L. Streib, Professor of Law at Ohio Northern University College of Law. (Please see the full-text of the report for more details.) Updates and periodic annotations by DPIC.


    The 184 death sentences for female offenders have been imposed in 26 states and by the federal government, comprising two-thirds of the 39 death penalty jurisdictions during this time period. Five states (California, Florida, Texas, North Carolina, and Alabama) account for more than half of all such sentences.


    Rank Sentencing State
    Race of Offender
    Total Female Sentences
    White Black Latina Native Amer. / Asian
    1 California 12 4 7 3 26
    2 Florida 13 5 3 0 21
    3 Texas 12 7 1 0 20
    4 North Carolina 10 4 0 2 16
    5 Alabama 9 4 0 0 13
    6 Ohio 6 6 0 0 12
    7 Mississippi 7 2 0 0 9
    8 Oklahoma 7 1 0 0 8
    9 Illinois 1 4 2 0 7
    10 Pennsylvania 3 4 0 0 7
    11 Georgia 5 1 0 0 6
    12 Missouri 4 0 1 0 5
    13 Arizona 5 0 0 0 5
    14 Indiana 2 2 0 0 4
    15 Kentucky 3 0 0 0 3
    16 Louisiana 2 1 0 0 3
    17 Maryland 1 0 0 2 3
    18 New Jersey 3 0 0 0 3
    19 Arkansas 2 0 0 0 2
    20 Idaho 2 0 0 0 2
    21 Nevada 1 1 0 0 2
    22 Tennessee 2 0 0 0 2
    23 Federal 2 0 0 0 2
    24 Delaware 1 0 0 0 1
    25 Oregon 1 0 0 0 1
    26 South Carolina 1 0 0 0 1
    27 Virginia 1 0 0 0 1
      Totals 117 46 14 7 184

    Taken from "Death Penalty For Female Offenders, January 1973 through December 31, 2012 [PDF]" by Victor L. Streib, Professor of Law at Ohio Northern University College of Law, with periodic annotations by DPIC (Please see the full-text of the report for more details.)


    As of April 1, 2017, the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund reports that there were 53 women on death rows across the United States.

    Here is DPIC's list of the women who were on death row in the United States as of January 1, 2013 or were subsequently sentenced to death.

    To see Professor Streib's summaries of the cases of the women who were on death row as of December 2012, click here.

    Name County Sex Race State Notes
    Scott, Christie Michelle Franklin F W AL  
    Blackmon, Patricia Houston F B AL  
    Gobble, Tierra Capri Houston F W AL  
    Keaton, Heather Mobile F B AL  
    Graham, Lisa Russell F W AL  
    Johnson, Shonda Walker F W AL  
    Andriano, Wendi Maricopa F W AZ  
    [ Milke, Debra Jean ] Maricopa F W AZ Exonerated
    Forde, Shawna Pima F W AZ  
    Michaud, Michelle Alameda  F W CA  
    Martin, Valerie Los Angeles F W CA  
    McDermott, Maureen Los Angeles F W CA  
    Nieves, Sandi Los Angeles F W CA  
    Rodriguez, Angelina Los Angeles F L CA  
    Samuels, Mary Los Angeles F W CA  
    Thompson, Catherine Los Angeles F B CA  
    Williams, Manling Los Angeles F A CA  
    Alfaro, Maria Orange  F L CA  
    Nelson, Tanya Orange  F A CA  
    Buenrostro, Dora Riverside  F L CA  
    Magana, Belinda Riverside  F L CA  
    Rottiers, Brooke Riverside  F W CA  
    Sarinana, Cathy Riverside  F W CA  
    Snyder, Janeen Riverside  F W CA  
    Coffman, Cynthia San Bernardino F W CA  
    Dalton, Kerry San Diego F W CA  
    Eubanks, Susan San Diego F W CA  
    Gonzales, Veronica San Diego F L CA  
    Carrington, Celeste San Mateo F B CA  
    Caro, Socorro Ventura  F L CA  
    Allen, Margaret Brevard F B FL  
    Cole, Tiffany Duval F W FL  
    Brown, Tina Escambia F B FL  
    Carr, Emilia Marion F L FL  
    Cardona, Ana Miami-Dade F L FL  
    Gissendaner, Kelly Renee Gwinnett F W GA Executed 2015
    Row, Robin Ada F W ID  
    Brown, Debra Maroc F B IN  
    Caudill, Virginia Fayette F W KY  
    Holmes, Brandy Caddo F W LA  
    Frank, Antoinette Orleans F B LA  
    Chamberlin, Lisa Forrest F W MS  
    Byrom, Michelle Tishomingo F W MS  
    Moore, Blanche T. Forsyth F W NC  
    Parker, Carlette Wake F B NC  
    Jennings, Patricia W. Wilson F W NC  
    Roberts, Donna ^  Trumbull F W OH  
    Andrew, Brenda Oklahoma F W OK  
    Mcanulty, Angela Lane F W OR  
    [ Walter, Shonda ] Clinton  F B PA  
    [ King, Carolyn ] Lebanon  F B PA  
    Tharp, Michelle Sue Washington  F W PA  
    Pike, Christa Knox F W TN  
    Lucio, Melissa Cameron F L TX  
    McCarthy, Kimberly Dallas F B TX Executed 2013
    Routier, Darlie Dallas F W TX  
    Basso, Suzanne Harris F W TX Executed 2014
    Carty, Linda Harris F B TX  
    Sheppard, Erica Harris F B TX  
    Holberg, Brittany Randall F W TX  
    Cargill, Kimberly Smith F W TX  
    Coleman, Lisa Tarrant F B TX Executed 2014
    Henderson, Cathy Travis F W TX  



    Professor Victor L. Streib of the Ohio Northern University College of Law analyzed the characteristics of the women on death row as of December 2012. He found that the ages of the women then on death row ranged from age 28 to 79 years old. They had been on death row from a few months to more than 26 years.


    18-19 3 5%      
    20 - 29 22 36%      
    30 - 39 23 38%      
    40 - 49 11 18%      
    50 - 59 2 3%      
    TOTAL 61 100%      
    20 - 29 2 3% Black 13 21%
    30 - 39 13 21% Latina 8 13%
    40 - 49 24 39% American Indian 1 2%
    50 - 59 15 24% White 37 61%
    60 - 69 5 8% Asian 2 3%
    70 - 79 2 3%      
    TOTAL 61 100% TOTAL 61 100%
    Age at Time of the Crime NR. Per. RACE/SEX NR. Per.
    0 - 4 9 11% Asian Male 3 3%
    5 - 9 18 21% Asian Female 3 3%
    10 - 19 12 14% Black Male 2 2%
    20 - 29 16 19% Black Female 5 5%
    30 - 39 11 13% Latin Male 12 14%
    40 - 49 4 5% Latin Female 11 13%
    50 - 59 5 6% White Male 30 35%
    60 - 69 3 3% White Female 19 22%
    70 - 79 4 5%      
    80 - 89 3 3%      
    TOTAL 85 100% TOTAL 85 100%

      * Taken from "Death Penalty For Female Offenders, January 1973 through December 31, 2012 [PDF]" by Victor L. Streib, Professor of Law at Ohio Northern University College of Law, with periodic annotations by DPIC (Please see the full-text of the report for more details.)

    * Victor Streib's report stated that 61 women were then on death row. The NAACP Legal Defense & Education Fund's "Death Row USA" October 1, 2012 reported that 63 women were on death row at the time. Death Row USA, however, included women whose sentences that had been reversed and were awaiting final disposition of their retrial or resentencing proceedings.


    Atwell, Mary W., Wretched Sisters: Examining Gender and Capital Punishment (Peter Lang Press, 2nd ed. 2014)

    Baker, David V.: "A Descriptive Profile and Socio-Historical Analysis of Female Executions in the United States: 1632-1997," 10(3) Women and Criminal Justice 57 (1999)

    The Cornell Center for the Death Penalty Worldwide, Judged for More Than Her Crime: A Global Overview of Women Facing the Death Penalty (September 2018) — This report examines "widespread discriminatory practices in the capital prosecution and detention of women on death row" worldwide, with particular emphasis on the countries of India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malawi, Pakistan, and the United States. 

    Crocker, Phyllis, "Is the Death Penalty Good for Women," 4 Buffalo Criminal Law Review 917 (2001) — This article examines gender and race issues in rape-murder death penalty cases.

    Howarth, Joan W., "Executing White Masculinities: Learning from Karla Faye Tucker," 81 Oregon Law Review 183 (2002)

    Rapaport, Elizabeth, "Staying Alive: Executive Clemency, Equal Protection, and the Politics of Gender in Women's Capital Cases," 4 Buffalo Criminal Law Review 967 (2001) — This article considers how clemency decisions are made with regard to women and the extent to which gender issues affect those decisions.

    Rapaport, Elizabeth, "Equality of the Damned: The Execution of Women on the Cusp of the 21st Century," 26 Ohio Northern University Law Review 581 (2000)

    Streib, Victor, The Fairer Death: Executing Women in Ohio (Ohio University Press, 2006)

    Download / Listen to our Discussions With DPIC podcast Women and the Death Penalty, With Professor Mary Atwell

    In observance of Women's History Month 2017, DPIC staff members Anne Holsinger and Robin Konrad interviewed Mary Atwell, Ph.D., one of the nation’s foremost experts on women on death row. Dr. Atwell is Professor Emerita of Criminal Justice at Radford University and author of three books on capital punishment, most recently Wretched Sisters: Examining Gender and Capital Punishment. The podcast discusses Dr. Atwell's research and highlights the themes and patterns present in capital murder cases in which women were the defendants. Running time: 41:06 (March 24, 2017)