United States Supreme Court

Case Updates by Supreme Court Term

U.S. Supreme Court Decisions: 2019-2020 Term

Last Updated: November 11, 2019

Opinions of the Court

No death penalty opinions have been released in the 2019-2020 term.

Pending Decisions

SHARP* v. MURPHY, No. 17-1107

(*formerly Carpenter v. Murphy and Royal v. Murphy; name changes reflect changes of warden)
Cert. granted: May 21, 2018
Argument: November 27, 2018
Decided: Not yet decided

Sharp v. Murphy presents significant issues of tribal sovereignty raised in the context of an Oklahoma death penalty case. Patrick Dwayne Murphy is a member of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation. He was prosecuted by the State of Oklahoma for the murder of another Creek member and was convicted and sentenced to death by a jury in McIntosh County, Oklahoma. In his federal habeas corpus proceedings, Murphy appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, arguing that Oklahoma lacked jurisdiction over the case and that he should have been tried in federal court because he is Creek and the offense occurred within the boundaries of the Creek Reservation.

Murphy argued that, under federal law, the federal government had “exclusive jurisdiction to prosecute murders committed by Indians in Indian country.” Therefore, he says, Oklahoma had no authority to prosecute him. After applying the laws enacted by Congress and interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court, the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit agreed with Murphy that Congress had never disestablished the treaty with the Creek Nation setting the boundaries of the Creek Reservation and that the murder had occurred on Indian lands. As a result, the Tenth Circuit vacated Murphy’s conviction and death sentence and issued an order directing the lower court to issue a writ of habeas corpus.

The State of Oklahoma — through Terry Royal, then the Warden for the Oklahoma State Penitentiary — asked the Supreme Court to review the case. On May 21, 2018, the Supreme Court granted Oklahoma’s petition for writ of certiorari and agreed to review the question presented by Royal. Justice Gorsuch, who as a judge on the Tenth Circuit had previously participated in a procedural ruling in the case, recused himself from consideration of the decision whether to grant review. Following the grant of certiorari, Mike Carpenter replaced Royal as interim warden and the named petitioner in the case. The question presented is:

Whether the 1866 territorial boundaries of the Creek Nation within the former Indian Territory of eastern Oklahoma constitute an “Indian reservation” today under 18 U.S.C. § 1151(a).

*18 U.S.C. § 1151 states in relevant part: “[T]he term ‘Indian country’, as used in this chapter, means (a) all land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States Government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent, and, including rights- of-way running through the reservation.”

The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, the Cherokee Nation, and the National Congress of American Indians have filed amicus curiae briefs in support of Murphy. Business interests such as the Oklahoma Cattlemen’s Association, the Oklahoma Farm Bureau Legal Foundation, the Oklahoma Oil & Gas Association, the Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association, and State Chamber of Oklahoma and the Oklahoma Sheriffs’ Association, as well as ten states and the Solicitor General of the United States filed amicus curiae briefs in support of Oklahoma prosecutors.

The Court heard oral argument on November 27, 2018 and, on December 4, 2018, requested further briefing on the following questions:

(1) Whether any statute grants the state of Oklahoma jurisdiction over the prosecution of crimes committed by Indians in the area within the 1866 territorial boundaries of the Creek Nation, irrespective of the area’s reservation status. (2) Whether there are circumstances in which land qualifies as an Indian reservation but nonetheless does not meet the definition of Indian country as set forth in 18 U. S. C. §1151(a).

On June 27, 2019, the Court restored the case to its calendar for reargument in the 2019-20 court term. Following the grant of reargument, Tommy Sharp replace Carpenter as interim warden and the named petitioner in the case.

You can read case-related documents on the Supreme Court website.

KAHLER v. KANSAS, No. 18-6135

Cert. granted: March 18, 2019
Argument: October 7, 2019
Decided: Not yet decided

The Supreme Court has granted review of the case of Kansas death-row prisoner James Kahler. Kahler was sentenced to death for killing four of his family members in the midst of a major depressive episode. Kahler’s evaluation by a forensic psychiatrist showed that Kahler may have experienced “stress induced short-term dissociation” and felt compelled to commit the homicides without the ability to control his behavior. (Kahler Cert. Petition at 7.)

Kahler’s attorneys argue that this mental health evidence could have provided the basis for an insanity defense except for the fact that Kansas has abandoned this traditional defense. Traditionally, defendants were not allowed to be found guilty of a crime if their mental health issue meant that they were “unable to know the nature and quality of his actions or know the difference between right and wrong with respect to his actions.” (Cert. Petition at 3 (quoting Marc Rosen, Insanity Denied: Abolition of the Insanity Defense in Kansas, 8 Kan. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 253 (1998)).) However, Kansas has abandoned this definition of insanity. Instead, Kansas law only allows a mental-health-based acquittal if evidence shows that due to a “mental disease or defect” a defendant lacked the mental state required to commit the crime charged. Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Utah also do not allow an insanity defense.

Kahler argues that the lack of an insanity defense violates the US Constitution’s guarantees of due process and freedom from cruel and unusual punishments by allowing the conviction and death sentencing of defendants who lack moral culpability for their crimes. Kahler is asking the Court to clarify the question left open in Clark v. Arizona, 548 U.S. 735 (2006), “Do the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments permit a state to abolish the insanity defense?”

You can read case-related documents on the Supreme Court website.

McKINNEY v. ARIZONA, No. 18-1109

Cert. granted: June 10, 2019
Argument: December 11, 2019
Decided: Not yet decided

The Supreme Court has granted review in the case of James Erin McKinney. McKinney was sentenced to death in Arizona for the killing of two people in the course of a burglary. McKinney’s mitigation evidence included evidence of a childhood filled with instability, abuse, and neglect. His severe childhood abuse resulted in PTSD. While the trial judge recognized that McKinney’s childhood was so horrific that it was “beyond the comprehension of most people,” the judge dismissed this evidence because he found it was not causally connected to the crime.

McKinney’s death sentence was found unconstitutional by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals because Arizona courts refused to consider mitigating evidence not “causally connected” to the crime. The Ninth Circuit found that Arizona’s practice (in McKinney’s cases and all other cases decided in a 15-year time period) violated the Supreme Court’s decision in Eddings v. Oklahoma, 455 U.S. 104 (1982).

The state attempted to salvage McKinney’s death sentence by asking the Arizona Supreme Court to conduct an independent review of the sentence. McKinney argued that the case should be remanded to a trial court for resentencing by a jury. The Arizona Supreme Court sided with the state and upheld the death sentence after weighing the aggravating and mitigating evidence. In doing so, the court gave McKinney’s PTSD little weight.

In his petition for certiorari, McKinney challenged the Arizona Supreme Court’s ruling, arguing that the Supreme Court’s decision in Ring v. Arizona entitles him to jury-sentencing. McKinney also argued that correcting an Eddings error about consideration of mitigation evidence requires a resentencing, not just state supreme court review. McKinney noted a circuit split on both of the issues that he urged the Supreme Court to resolve.


1. Whether the Arizona Supreme Court was required to apply current law when weighing mitigating and aggravating evidence to determine whether a death sentence is warranted.
2. Whether the correction of error under Eddings v. Oklahoma, 455 U.S. 104 (1982), requires resentencing.

You can read case-related documents on the Supreme Court website.

Orders of the Court and Related Items

Denials of Review, With Statements by Individual Justices

On November 3, 2019, South Carolina executed Charles Rhines after the United States Supreme Court denied his applications for a stay of execution and petitions for certiorari. Rhines challenged several aspects of his conviction and sentencing, including jurors’ anti-gay bias. In addition, Rhines sought review of lower federal courts’ refusal to intervene when state officials blocked medical experts from being admitted to the prison to evaluate Rhines. Rhines had argued that these evaluations were necessary for his federally appointed counsel to investigate and present a clemency petition. Although she did not dissent from the denial of certiorari, Justice Sonia Sotomayor wrote a statement “to emphasize that clemency is not a matter of mercy alone, but rather is the fail safe in our criminal justice system” (internal quotations omitted).

On October 7, 2019, the Supreme Court declined to review Fred Anderson Jr.’s challenge to his Florida death sentence. Anderson was sentenced to death by a jury that had been advised that its sentence would be advisory and that “[t]he final decision as to what punishment shall be imposed[] rests solely with the Judge of this court.” The jury recommended death in a 12-0 advisory verdict. After the United States Supreme Court’s decision in Hurst v. Florida that this advisory sentencing scheme was unconstitutional, Anderson sought a resentencing. The Florida Supreme Court denied Anderson relief, holding that the Hurst error was harmless beyond a reasonable doubt due to the unanimous jury recommendation. The Florida Supreme Court has applied this holding to any death sentence that became final after Ring v. Arizona was decided in which a unanimous jury recommended death. Although the U.S. Supreme Court denied certiorari review, Justice Sonia Sotomayor noted her “dissent for the reasons set out in Reynolds v. Florida, 586 U. S. ___ (2018) (Sotomayor, J., dissenting).”

Other Notable Denials of Review

In Woodward v. Alabama, No. 18-1298, the Court declined to review the constitutionality of Alabama’s since-repealed statute that permitted the trial judge to impose the death penalty despite a jury vote in favor of life. A Montgomery, Alabama jury had convicted Mario Woodward, an African-American defendant, of killing a white police officer during a traffic stop, but had voted 8-4 to sentence him to life. The trial judge overrode the jury and imposed the death penalty.

Petitions of Interest

Several pending petitions for certiorari challenge the constitutionality of California’s death sentencing scheme. In California, at the end of the guilt phase of a capital murder trial, a jury must determine beyond a reasonable doubt whether one of the enumerated “special circumstances” exists. If so, the case continues to a penalty phase where the jury determines whether the aggravating circumstances outweigh the mitigating circumstances, allowing a death sentence to be imposed. Several petitioners argue that this sentencing scheme violates the Constitution by failing to require the jurors to unanimously find the aggravating circumstances beyond a reasonable doubt. This issue is raised by petitioners Michael Leon Bell (cert denied 10/7/19), Kerry Lyn Dalton, Julian Alejandro Mendez (cert denied 11/4/19), among others.

Mississippi death row prisoners Richard Jordan and Ricky Chase have filed a petition for certiorari that highlights the tension between state secrecy about lethal injection and the Supreme Court’s requirements in lethal injection challenges. In Glossip v. Gross, the Supreme Court required prisoners bringing lethal injection challenges to provide a “known and available alternative” method of execution. Jordan and Chase are challenging Mississippi’s lethal injection protocol, which uses midazolam as the first of three drugs. The petitioners have addressed the Glossip requirement by proposing a single-drug protocol using pentobarbital as an alternative execution method. In order to demonstrate the availability of this alternative, the petitioners attempted to subpoena records and conduct a deposition about Virginia’s efforts to procure pentobarbital and the state’s most recent executions. Virginia produced a limited set of documents and refused to participate in the deposition; the state’s motion to quash the subpoena was granted by a federal district court and upheld by the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.

The questions presented in the petition for certiorari are:

  1. Whether the burden of proof demanded by Glossip in method-of-execution challenges requires commensurately broad discovery rights to provide plaintiffs an adequate opportunity to meet Glossip’s requirements
  2. Whether condemned prisoners bringing method-of-execution challenges under Glossip must be allowed a reasonable opportunity to secure discovery from corrections departments outside their state to meet the requirement to prove a “known, available alternative” to the method they challenge.

You can read case-related documents on the Supreme Court website.